What is Bond?

A bond is a financial instrument that plays a vital role in the world of finance and investment. It represents a formal agreement between two parties: the issuer and the bondholder. The issuer can be a government, municipality, corporation, or any entity in need of capital to fund various activities or projects. When an individual or institution purchases a bond, they are essentially lending money to the issuer, and in return, they receive a promise of repayment with periodic interest payments.


  1. Face Value (Principal): The face value, also known as the par value or principal amount, represents the sum of money that the bondholder will receive when the bond reaches its maturity date. It’s the amount the issuer is committed to paying back.
  2. Coupon Rate: The coupon rate is the fixed annual interest rate set by the issuer. It determines the amount of interest the bondholder will receive periodically. This rate is applied to the bond’s face value to calculate the interest payments.
  3. Maturity Date: Each bond has a specified maturity date, which is the point in the future when the issuer will repay the bondholder the face value of the bond. Bonds can have varying maturities, ranging from short-term (months) to long-term (decades).
  4. Interest Payments: Bondholders receive periodic interest payments, often referred to as coupon payments. These payments are typically made semi-annually and are calculated based on the bond’s face value and coupon rate.
  5. Issuers: Bonds are issued by different entities, each with distinct characteristics. Government bonds are issued by national governments or government agencies and are generally considered low-risk investments. Corporate bonds are issued by corporations to raise capital for various purposes.
  6. Credit Ratings: Bonds are subject to credit ratings by agencies such as Standard & Poor’s and Moody’s. These ratings assess the issuer’s creditworthiness and the associated risk. Higher-rated bonds are less risky and offer lower interest rates.

Bonds are fundamental in financial markets, serving a variety of purposes. They provide a means for governments to fund public projects, corporations to raise capital for expansion or debt refinancing, and investors to achieve a balanced and diversified investment portfolio.